Rainy season comes after the Summer season. In this period the sky is full of clouds. The rivers flood and create great destruction. We have written simple essays on Rainy Season. Select any one according to your utrnxh.mesavnasa.info: Bishnu Mahato. The air in this season is free from dust. Rain is helpful in agriculture. An essay in Hindi language on the rainy season should include facts on the monsoon and your appreciation of its benefits. In Brazil, the wet season is correlated to weaker trade winds off the ocean. The pH level of water becomes more balanced due to the charging of local aquifers during the wet season. Water also softens, as dissolved materials lower in concentration during the rainy season. Erosion is also increased during rainy .
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Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity.
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Rain is a major component of the water cycle and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the Earth. It provides suitable conditions for many types of ecosystems , as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop irrigation. The major cause of rain production is moisture moving along three-dimensional zones of temperature and moisture contrasts known as weather fronts.
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If enough moisture and upward motion is present, precipitation falls from convective clouds those with strong upward vertical motion such as cumulonimbus thunder clouds which can organize into narrow rainbands.
In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation which forces moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall along the sides of mountains.
On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by downslope flow which causes heating and drying of the air mass. The movement of the monsoon trough , or intertropical convergence zone , brings rainy seasons to savannah climes. The urban heat island effect leads to increased rainfall, both in amounts and intensity, downwind of cities.
Global warming is also causing changes in the precipitation pattern globally, including wetter conditions across eastern North America and drier conditions in the tropics.
Rainfall is measured using rain gauges. Rainfall amounts can be estimated by weather radar. Rain is also known or suspected on other planets, where it may be composed of methane , neon , sulfuric acid , or even iron rather than water. Warmer air can contain more water vapor than cooler air before becoming saturated.
Therefore, one way to saturate a parcel of air is to cool it. The dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, and evaporative cooling.
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Adiabatic cooling occurs when air rises and expands. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface,  usually by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation , either by the air or by the surface underneath. The main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion,  precipitation or virga falling from above,  daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet land,  transpiration from plants,  cool or dry air moving over warmer water,  and lifting air over mountains.
Elevated portions of weather fronts which are three-dimensional in nature  force broad areas of upward motion within the Earth's atmosphere which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus. It can also form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions.
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Coalescence occurs when water droplets fuse to create larger water droplets. Air resistance typically causes the water droplets in a cloud to remain stationary. When air turbulence occurs, water droplets collide, producing larger droplets. As these larger water droplets descend, coalescence continues, so that drops become heavy enough to overcome air resistance and fall as rain. Coalescence generally happens most often in clouds above freezing, and is also known as the warm rain process.
This generally requires more mass than coalescence when occurring between the crystal and neighboring water droplets. This process is temperature dependent, as supercooled water droplets only exist in a cloud that is below freezing.
In addition, because of the great temperature difference between cloud and ground level, these ice crystals may melt as they fall and become rain. Raindrops have sizes ranging from 0.
Smaller drops are called cloud droplets, and their shape is spherical. As a raindrop increases in size, its shape becomes more oblate, with its largest cross-section facing the oncoming airflow.
Large rain drops become increasingly flattened on the bottom, like hamburger buns; very large ones are shaped like parachutes. The large size is explained by condensation on large smoke particles or by collisions between drops in small regions with particularly high content of liquid water.
Rain drops associated with melting hail tend to be larger than other rain drops. Intensity and duration of rainfall are usually inversely related, i. The final droplet size distribution is an exponential distribution. This is commonly referred to as the Marshall—Palmer law after the researchers who first characterized it. Deviations can occur for small droplets and during different rainfall conditions. The distribution tends to fit averaged rainfall, while instantaneous size spectra often deviate and have been modeled as gamma distributions.
Raindrops impact at their terminal velocity , which is greater for larger drops due to their larger mass to drag ratio.
At sea level and without wind, 0. Rain falling on loosely packed material such as newly fallen ash can produce dimples that can be fossilized, called raindrop impressions. The sound of raindrops hitting water is caused by bubbles of air oscillating underwater. In certain conditions precipitation may fall from a cloud but then evaporate or sublime before reaching the ground. This is termed virga and is more often seen in hot and dry climates.
Similar ascent is seen around tropical cyclones outside the eyewall , and in comma-head precipitation patterns around mid-latitude cyclones. Occluded fronts usually form around mature low-pressure areas. If there is a shallow near surface layer that is below freezing, freezing rain rain which freezes on contact with surfaces in subfreezing environments will result.
Convective rain , or showery precipitation, occurs from convective clouds e. It falls as showers with rapidly changing intensity. Convective precipitation falls over a certain area for a relatively short time, as convective clouds have limited horizontal extent.
Most precipitation in the tropics appears to be convective; however, it has been suggested that stratiform precipitation also occurs. Orographic precipitation occurs on the windward side of mountains and is caused by the rising air motion of a large-scale flow of moist air across the mountain ridge, resulting in adiabatic cooling and condensation.
In mountainous parts of the world subjected to relatively consistent winds for example, the trade winds , a more moist climate usually prevails on the windward side of a mountain than on the leeward or downwind side.
Moisture is removed by orographic lift, leaving drier air see katabatic wind on the descending and generally warming, leeward side where a rain shadow is observed. Windward sides face the east to northeast trade winds and receive much more rainfall; leeward sides are drier and sunnier, with less rain and less cloud cover. In South America, the Andes mountain range blocks Pacific moisture that arrives in that continent, resulting in a desertlike climate just downwind across western Argentina.
The wet, or rainy, season is the time of year, covering one or more months, when most of the average annual rainfall in a region falls. Tropical rainforests technically do not have dry or wet seasons, since their rainfall is equally distributed through the year.
The wet season is a time when air quality improves,  freshwater quality improves,   and vegetation grows significantly.
Tropical cyclones , a source of very heavy rainfall, consist of large air masses several hundred miles across with low pressure at the centre and with winds blowing inward towards the centre in either a clockwise direction southern hemisphere or counter clockwise northern hemisphere.
The fine particulate matter produced by car exhaust and other human sources of pollution forms cloud condensation nuclei , leads to the production of clouds and increases the likelihood of rain. As commuters and commercial traffic cause pollution to build up over the course of the week, the likelihood of rain increases: it peaks by Saturday, after five days of weekday pollution has been built up.
This extra heat leads to greater upward motion, which can induce additional shower and thunderstorm activity. Increasing temperatures tend to increase evaporation which can lead to more precipitation. Globally there has been no statistically significant overall trend in precipitation over the past century, although trends have varied widely by region and over time.
Eastern portions of North and South America, northern Europe, and northern and central Asia have become wetter.
The Sahel, the Mediterranean, southern Africa and parts of southern Asia have become drier. There has been an increase in the number of heavy precipitation events over many areas during the past century, as well as an increase since the s in the prevalence of droughts—especially in the tropics and subtropics.
Over the contiguous United States, total annual precipitation increased at an average rate of 6. Analysis of 65 years of United States of America rainfall records show the lower 48 states have an increase in heavy downpour s since The largest increases are in the Northeast and Midwest, which in the past decade, have seen 31 and 16 percent more heavy downpours compared to the s.
Heavy downpour in the analysis are the days where total precipitation exceeded the top 1 percent of all rain and snow days during the years —  . The most successful attempts at influencing weather involve cloud seeding , which include techniques used to increase winter precipitation over mountains and suppress hail.
Rainbands are cloud and precipitation areas which are significantly elongated. Rainbands can be stratiform or convective ,  and are generated by differences in temperature. When noted on weather radar imagery, this precipitation elongation is referred to as banded structure. Rainbands spawned near and ahead of cold fronts can be squall lines which are able to produce tornadoes. If sea breeze rainbands become active enough just ahead of a cold front, they can mask the location of the cold front itself.
Once a cyclone occludes, a tr ough o f w arm air al oft, or " trowal " for short, will be caused by strong southerly winds on its eastern periphery rotating aloft around its northeast, and ultimately northwestern, periphery also known as the warm conveyor belt , forcing a surface trough to continue into the cold sector on a similar curve to the occluded front. The trowal creates the portion of an occluded cyclone known as its comma head, due to the comma -like shape of the mid-tropospheric cloudiness that accompanies the feature.
It can also be the focus of locally heavy precipitation, with thunderstorms possible if the atmosphere along the trowal is unstable enough for convection. Downwind of islands, bands of showers and thunderstorms can develop due to low level wind convergence downwind of the island edges. Offshore California , this has been noted in the wake of cold fronts. Rainbands within tropical cyclones are curved in orientation.
Tropical cyclone rainbands contain showers and thunderstorms that, together with the eyewall and the eye, constitute a hurricane or tropical storm. The extent of rainbands around a tropical cyclone can help determine the cyclone's intensity.
The phrase acid rain was first used by Scottish chemist Robert Augus Smith in Sulfuric acid is derived from natural sources such as volcanoes, and wetlands sulfate reducing bacteria ; and anthropogenic sources such as the combustion of fossil fuels, and mining where H 2 S is present. Nitric acid is produced by natural sources such as lightning, soil bacteria, and natural fires; while also produced anthropogenically by the combustion of fossil fuels and from power plants.
In the past 20 years the concentrations of nitric and sulfuric acid has decreased in presence of rainwater, which may be due to the significant increase in ammonium most likely as ammonia from livestock production , which acts as a buffer in acid rain and raises the pH.
Specifically, the primary types are A, tropical; B, dry; C, mild mid-latitude; D, cold mid-latitude; and E, polar. The five primary classifications can be further divided into secondary classifications such as rain forest , monsoon , tropical savanna , humid subtropical , humid continental , oceanic climate , Mediterranean climate , steppe , subarctic climate , tundra , polar ice cap , and desert.
They are widespread on Africa , and are also found in India , the northern parts of South America , Malaysia , and Australia. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and from occasional tropical cyclones. An oceanic or maritime climate is typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the world's continents, bordering cool oceans, as well as southeastern Australia , and is accompanied by plentiful precipitation year-round.