Mar 17, · Crime and Deviance This essay will evaluate the Marxist theory that the ruling class in society decides the law and enforces it, to reflect their own interests. Marxism is a political and social system based on the ideas of Karl Marx (). Aug 17, · Deviance is any behavior that does not conform to the prevailing norms of a utrnxh.mesavnasa.infoce is the recognized violation of cultural utrnxh.mesavnasa.infoce is measured by sociteis reaction, its is measured by societies life style,only behavior that is defined unacceptable in a culture is deviant. May 27, · AQA AS/A SOCIOLOGY ESSAY: CRITICALLY EXAMINE MARXIST PERSPECTIVES ON TODAY’S SOCIETY Classical Marxism is a conflict structural theory which argues that, rather than society being based on value consensus as functionalists would contend, there is a conflict of interest between different groups (social classes) because of the unequal distribution of power and wealth. Traditional Marxists view on deviance is that deviance is a result of economic factors and the proletariat's are forced to commit crime to survive and most laws are there to protect the bourgeoisie's property and that in a communist society there would be no utrnxh.mesavnasa.info: Mel.
- Post navigation
- Monash university essay plan template
- Theories Of Sociology : Functionalism And Marxism Essay
- Sociology- Marxism
- ‚ÄòMarxism Is No Longer Relevant to Our Understanding of Crime & Deviance in Society‚Äô
- Higher education importance essay definition
- Social Deviance Essay
- Say no to violence essay
Marxist criminologists see power being held by the Bourgeoisie and laws are a reflection of Bourgeois ideol ogy. The legal system lawyers, judges and the courts and the police all serve the interests of the Bourgeoisie. These institutions are used to control the masses, prevent revolution and keep people in a state of false consciousness. For the purposes of A2 Sociology, the Marxist perspective on crime may be summarised into four key points:.
Capitalism is Crimogenic —This means that the Capitalist system encourages criminal behaviour.
The Law is made by the Capitalist elite and tends to work in their interests. A ll classes, not just the working classes commit crime, and the crimes of the Capitalist class are more costly than street crime. T he state practices Selective Law Enforcement — The Criminal Justice system mainly concerns itself with policing and punishing the marginalised, not the wealthy, and this performs ideological functions for the elite classes.
Key Sociologists associated with this perspective are William Chambliss and Laureen Snider Examples of more contemporary theorists include Professors Tombs and Whyte See later. The Capitalist system can be said to be crimogenic in three major ways —. Capitalism encourages individuals to pursue self-interest rather than public duty.
Capitalism encourages individuals to be materialistic consumers, making us aspire to an unrealistic and often unattainable lifestyle. Capitalism in its wake generates massive inequality and poverty, conditions which are correlated with higher crime rates.
The first reason that Capitalism is Crimogenic is because it encourages individuals to pursue self-interest before everything else. If we look at the Capitalist system, what we find is that not only does it recommend that we engage in the self-interested pursuit of profit is good, we learn that it is acceptable to harm others and the environment in the process.
Marxists point out that in a Capitalist society, there is immense competitive pressure to make more money, to be more successful, and to make more profit, because in a competitive system, this is the only way to ensure survival.
In such a context, breaking the law can seem insignificant compared to the pressure to succeed and pressures to break the law affect all people: from the investment banker to the unemployed gang member. Marxists theorise that the values of the Capitalist system filter down to the rest of our culture.
Monash university essay plan template
Think again about the motives of economic criminals: The burglars, the robbers, and the thieves. What they are doing is seeking personal gain without caring for the individual victims.
Advertising is a long way beyond merely providing us with information about a product; it has arguably become the art of disinformation. It is doubtless that corporations benefit through advertising, and modern Capitalism could not exist without the culture of consumerism that the advertising industry perpetuates, and activities have pointed to many downsides.
One of the most obvious is that the world of advertising presents as normal a lifestyle that may be unattainable for many people in British Society.
For those millions who lack the legitimate means to achieve the materialist norm through working, this can breed feelings of failure, inadequacy, frustration and anger at the fact that they are working-but-not—succeeding.
In short, Advertising creates the conditions that can lead to status frustration, which in turn can lead to crime. Merton and Nightingale have pointed out that for some the desire to achieve the success goals of society outweigh the pressure to obey the law, advertising only adds to this strain between the legitimate means and the goal of material success. Thirdly, Capitalism is Crimogenic because it creates inequality and poverty. The Capitalist system is one of radical inequality.
The Sociologists Zygmunt Bauman points out that the super wealthy effectively segregate themselves from the wealthy, through living in exclusive gated communities and travelling in private jets and armoured vehicles with security entourages.
Theories Of Sociology : Functionalism And Marxism Essay
If people can afford it, they move to a better area, and send their children to private schools. Marxists argue that this visible evidence of massive inequalities give people at the bottom a sense of injustice, a sense of anger and a sense of frustration that they are not sharing in the wealth being flaunted in front of them the flaunting is the point is it not?
As a result, Capitalism leads to a flourishing of economic crime as well as violent street crime. As we have seen from previous studies. Drug dealers see themselves as innovative entrepreneurs. So internalised is the desire to be successful that breaking the law is seen as a minor risk.
Discussion Questions:. Basic Marxist theory holds that the superstructure serves the ruling classes, thus the state passes laws which support ruling class interests.
Evidence for this can be found in the following:. Property rights are much more securely established in law than the collective rights of, for instance, trade unions. Property law clearly benefits the wealthy more than those with no property. Consider the fact that there are roughly , people recognised as homeless in the United Kingdom 1 , and , houses lying empty 2. The rights of the property owners to keep their properties empty are put before the rights of the needy to shelter.
Laureen Snider argues that Capitalist states are reluctant to pass laws which regulate large capitalist concerns and which might threaten profitability.
Having tried so hard to attract investment the last thing the state wants to do is alienate the large corporations. The state is thus reluctant to pass — or enforce — laws against such things as pollution, worker health and safety and monopolies. While the lack of regulation in these areas is obvious in the third world, in most of Europe, there are many laws protection the environment and health and safety, but fines for them are relatively low, and, until , no individual member of a corporation could be prosecuted for damaging the environment or endangering worker safety through corporate practise.
The activities of the vast majority of bankers and financiers were not seen as illegal and, far from being prosecuted, many grew rich through the payments of large bonuses. People have unequal access to the law.
Thus for Marxists, punishment for a crime may depend and vary according to the social class of the perpetrator.
Poorer criminals tend to receive harsher punishments than rich criminals. As evidenced in one of the examples above, Mark Thatcher received only a suspended sentence for assisting mercenaries in a military coup against a democratically elected government.
Discussion Question: Can you think of any other ways in which the law works in the interests of the elite? Two contemporary organisations: Multinational Monitor 3 and Corporate Watch 4 , specialise in documenting the illegal activities of corporations.
In the section below we look at two types of white collar crime — Fraud and Health and Safety infringements. Both of these sound either terribly complex or terribly unexciting or both which means people are generally uninterested in hearing about them, and this general lack of public interest is something which helps the elite get away with an incredibly high level of criminality.
Key Concepts. Corporate Crime: Those crimes committed by or for corporations or businesses which act to further their interests and have a serious physical or economic impact on employees, consumers and the general public.
The drive is usually the desire to increase profits. The Cost of Financial Crime Fraud. Organisations such as Corporate Watch and…. Multinational Monitor, suggest that Corporate Fraud is widespread.
The General Accounting Agency of the USA has estimated that s of savings and loans companies have failed in recent years due to insider dealing, failure to disclose accurate information, and racketeering. Victims in the courtroom clapped as the term was read out.
Madoff pleaded guilty to 11 counts of fraud, theft and money laundering. The sentencing, in what has been one of the biggest frauds ever seen on Wall Street, was eagerly anticipated. Corporate America has suffered a series of massive frauds during the past decade, including scandals at Enron, WorldCom, Tyco and more recently the financial empire run by Texas billionaire Allen Stanford.
Former WorldCom chief Benrard Ebbers is serving 25 years for accounting fraud.
‚ÄòMarxism Is No Longer Relevant to Our Understanding of Crime & Deviance in Society‚Äô
Former Enron chief executive Jeffrey Skilling was sentenced to more than 24 years in prison although the sentence was overturned. He remains in prison awaiting resentencing. Discussion Question: Are crimes such as fraud more harmful to society than violent crime? David Gordon argues that the police mainly focus on policing working class and underclass areas and the justice system mainly focuses on prosecuting working and underclass criminals.
By and large the system ignores the crimes of the elite and the middle classes, although both of these classes are just as likely to commit crime as the working classes. The imprisonment of selected members of the lower classes neutralises opposition to the system. We may also add a fourth benefit, that all of the police, court and media focus on working class street crime means that our attention is diverted away from the immorality and greed of the elite classes.
Revision Bundle for Sale. If you like this sort of thing, then you might like my Crime and Deviance Revision Bundle. Evaluating the Marxist Perspective on Crime part 1. The […]. What was that Chambliss said about capitalism, private property and the law?
This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Email Address.
Higher education importance essay definition
Social Deviance Essay
The Capitalist system can be said to be crimogenic in three major ways — Capitalism encourages individuals to pursue self-interest rather than public duty Capitalism encourages individuals to be materialistic consumers, making us aspire to an unrealistic and often unattainable lifestyle. Thirdly, Capitalism is Crimogenic because it creates inequality and poverty The Capitalist system is one of radical inequality.
Does exploitation lie at the heart of the Capitalist system?
Does Capitalism encourage us to be selfish consumers? Does Capitalism cause crime? The Law benefits the elite and works in their Interests Basic Marxist theory holds that the superstructure serves the ruling classes, thus the state passes laws which support ruling class interests. Evidence for this can be found in the following: Property rights are much more securely established in law than the collective rights of, for instance, trade unions.
The Ideological Functions of Selective Law Enforcement David Gordon argues that the police mainly focus on policing working class and underclass areas and the justice system mainly focuses on prosecuting working and underclass criminals.
Social Class and Crime ReviseSociology. Right Realist Criminology ReviseSociology.
Say no to violence essay
Sociology in the News 3 ReviseSociology. Sociology in the News 2 ReviseSociology. Leave a Reply Cancel reply.